文化資產局臺灣世界遺產潛力點
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今日瀏覽人次:988 累計瀏覽人次:5067518 / 2024年7月24日星期三
非物質文化遺產

歌仔戲

Gua'a Hi (Taiwanese opera)
國家 : 臺灣
所在地區 : 亞洲及太平洋地區
遺產類別 : 臺灣非物質文化遺產潛力名錄


歌仔戲發源於臺灣,一般認為是福建漳州地區的「歌仔」與車鼓小戲之身段與地方歌謠小調結合,於 19 世紀末在宜蘭地區發展成「本地歌仔」,最早是落地掃型式,在廟埕、樹下或隨廟會陣頭遊行演唱,由男性業餘子弟演出,並未穿著戲服,曲調、妝扮、身段都很簡單。而後藝人不斷研究改良,吸收民間流傳的各種戲曲菁華,如「車鼓旦」的打扮,京戲及北管戲的身段動作。歌仔戲融合各種戲曲,加上本土語言、民謠曲調的使用,在短短幾年間迅速超越各類劇種,紅遍全臺。因預見其背後商機,便有人開始籌組戲班以野台方式演出,戲院也引進歌仔戲進入內台劇場,結合燈光、音響、舞台布景及技術,新編劇碼,從單元劇變成連續劇以吸引觀眾,民國 50 年代更發展出廣播歌仔戲以及電視歌仔戲。各種演出型態當中,又以野台戲與民俗生活最為密切也最普遍,常於神誕、還願、建醮等宗教祭典和民俗活動場合,在廟口搭設舞台演出,正戲演出前,必先表演一段「扮仙戲」,為神明祝賀與信徒祈福。正戲分為「日戲」及「夜戲」,「日戲」演出歷史及傳說故事為主的「古路戲」;「夜戲」常以通俗新編的「胡撇仔戲」為主,表演方式較寫實生活化,穿插流行歌曲演唱,以及華麗鮮豔、中外混融的服裝。

傳統歌仔戲的行當主要分生、旦、丑,又因年齡、外在氣質的不同而各自細分,每一種角色的「腳步手路」、基本身段都不同,還需配合曲調而有特殊的走位,學習之初皆須練習基本功,確定所屬行當後,才開始針對專業技藝加強。歌仔戲的唱腔與唸白內容通俗易懂,經常出現民間俗諺和句尾押韻的「四唸白」,呈現臺灣的語言和生活特色。國內文化資產保存制度,以歌仔戲演員作為保存者,傳承其表演技藝,另外也保存後場音樂和舞台佈景工藝。由於演出型式多元,劇情故事、服飾裝扮、唸白台詞納入時下的流行,與時俱進,演員常有即興演出或與觀眾互動,甚至融合現代戲劇和音樂,透過家族戲班、傳統歌仔戲文化資產的保存者、走向大舞台融合現代戲劇的劇團等不同的管道傳承發展,歌仔戲至今仍然貼近人們的生活,舞台魅力不減。


Originating in Taiwan, Taiwanese opera is generally considered an integration of“gua’a”(songs incorporating stories) and chegu mini drama postures and figure characterizations (singing and dancing performance) from the Fujian and Zhangzhou region, and folk ballads. This performance style evolved into“local gua’a”in the Yilan area at the end of the 19th century. The earliest performance was of the“ground-sweeping”format, which took place spontaneously at the open space in front of temples, or underneath a large tree, or following the temple fair parades. Such performances were usually carried out by male amateur  students withoutcostumes,presenting songs ,make-up, and figures with simplicity. After continuous research and improvement by various performers, who absorbed the essence of various popular folk opera styles,Taiwanese opera gradually incorporated the costumes of“Chegu Dan”,and the postures and movements of Peking Opera and Beiguan Opera.

After integrating the elements of various operas, the local dialect, and folk songs,Taiwanese opera quickly became one of the most popular entertainment across Taiwan,surpassing other drama styles. People who foresaw the business opportunities began to organize troupes for open air performances. Theaters also produced indoor performances by integrating lighting, sound, stage backdrops and techniques, and new storylines,evolving from one single unit drama to a drama series to attract a larger audience. In the 1950s, Taiwanese opera also evolved into radio broadcasts and TV series.

Among the different performance formats, open-air opera was the most common and closely linked to the lives of people. Performances often took place during religious ceremonies, and folk custom activities including deity birthday celebrations, votive offerings, and blessing rituals. A stage would be set up at the temple entrance. Before the main performance, a prelude performance of “playing god” usually took place to celebrate the gods and pray for the faithful. The main performance may be a “day drama” or a “night drama”. Day dramas were so-called "ancient style dramas" that told the stories of legends and history. Night dramas were mainly “hupiezi dramas”that were newly scripted popular stories with an acting style that more closely matched the reality, interspersed with singing of pop songs, and the wearing of brightly-color gorgeous costumes that integrated Chinese and foreign clothing design elements. Traditional Taiwanese opera characters are mainly divided into sheng (male roles),dan (female roles), and chou (comedic roles), and further divided based on the character’s age and temperament. The “footsteps and hand gestures”, and basic posture of each character is specific and different, with designated stage blocking that is coordinated with the opera tunes. Beginners must practice the basic skills, and continue to strengthen their professional techniques after their designated roles are determined. The tones of singing, and spoken parts of the Taiwanese opera are ordinary and easy to understand, frequently in the “four-line poem”format with folk proverbs that rhymes at the end of each sentence, presenting the unique characteristics of Taiwanese language and lifestyle.

Taiwan’s cultural asset preservation system names the Taiwanese opera performers as the designated preservers who will pass on their performing skills as well as preserving the background music and the craftsmanship of the stage backdrop. Since the performance format is diverse, the storyline, costumes, and the spoken words often incorporate the latest trends to keep up with the times. The actors also interact frequently with the audience or improvise on the spot. Sometimes, even modern drama and music is incorporated into the performance. Through family opera troupes,traditional Taiwanese opera culture asset preservers, and theatre troupes that work on a big stage integrating modern drama, the heritage of Taiwanese opera is being passed on through diverse channels, and the art of the opera continues to stay close to the lives of the people without diminishing its charm on stage.
 

馬祖列島位於臺灣海峽西側,由36座島礁組成,星羅棋佈於閩江口外,串連為一海上明珠。堅硬的花崗岩是大地天賦的素材,丘陵起伏、岩岸蜿蜒,構成馬祖的基礎地形特色。而遠從6,000年前新石器時代史前人類的島嶼生活遺跡、漢朝閩越族避走海外形成海洋民族、清初閩東沿海漁民和少數泉州人蜂湧移居,就地取材、打石砌牆、圍牆築屋,在各個澳口沿等高線形成依山的聚落,構成了現在馬祖獨特的聚落型態;至國共內戰,馬祖成為軍事重地,銘刻上坑道、碉堡、標語、砲臺等戰地烙印,在山陵起伏下,是一條條坑道的交織,密度為全世界之冠。

馬祖戰地文化是全世界從「熱戰」到「冷戰」,以致於邁向目前「和平共處」階段,保存最完整、最佳的示範點,更是全球獨一無二的戰爭文化遺址。德國柏林圍牆只留小段供人憑弔;南北韓38度線處於準戰爭狀態;越南前南、北越鴻溝消滅殆盡;馬祖對岸的馬尾對峙期間設施也已幾無保存。加上馬祖閩東文化之搭配,更是獨步全球的優勢。

另外,原被生態界以為已經絕種的「黑嘴端鳳頭燕鷗」,2000年再度在馬祖被發現,迄今統計全世界僅存50多隻黑嘴端鳳頭燕鷗,其中有20多隻出現於馬祖,是目前全世界最多者。
馬祖 1949年,閩江、舟山群島相繼失守,美軍見留守大陳島後勤線將會過長不易長期防守,建議國民政府放棄大陳島等地,轉進金門、馬祖,對於大陸福建沿海任何軍事行動皆可提前掌控,扼守其要點,馬祖列島便成為國共抗戰的最北端防線,次年成立「馬祖行政公署」,實行軍事管制,但在這期間,行政組織相當不穩,軍事部隊事權也不統一,因此,為減少權力機關層級繁複,使權力集中,於1956年設立了「戰地政務委員會」,簡化行政層級,事權統一,軍方強勢的控管著一切事務,居民生活嚴重受到監控,管制其人口外流,並將居民納入軍事管理,建立民防組織,遂由原先安平樂業的漁村,一躍成為冷戰時期反共前哨堡壘,作為民主世界與共產政權的最前哨,馬祖實有其重要的歷史意義。 馬祖雖未經歷重大砲火摧殘,但歷史留下的軍事遺跡,卻成為我們最珍貴的文化資產。金馬戰地文化於2009年獲遴選為臺灣17處潛力點之一。 回溯馬祖列島開發歷史,遠至六千年前約當新石器時代,就有史前人類在島嶼上過著漁獵和採集的生活。從東莒島大坪隴考古遺址出土文物研究,證實與福州地區的曇石山遺址同屬一個文化層,跟後來的閩越文化圈,又有相當程度的關聯性。至今馬祖人仍舊保留著蛇和青蛙的圖騰信仰,濃濃的閩越文化遺風,已經沈潛於島民生活的底層,常顯現於祭典上,表露出馬祖人報本原始的情結和質樸的一面。 漢武帝剿滅閩越國後,一批不願歸降的閩越族遁走海上,成為最早的海洋民族,這樣偉業卻被歷代皇朝貶為「蜑民」階級。馬祖人稱呼蜑民為「曲蹄仔」,馬祖有許多曲蹄仔開發和出沒的澳口,因此有「曲蹄澳」的地名。史載馬祖曾有兩次海禁,進行封島焦土並將島民內徙:一次在1387年,因防制倭人為禍;另一次在1661年,為防止東南沿海居民接濟鄭成功軍隊。 海禁卻困不住馬祖人冒險犯難的海洋性格。清初,閩東沿海漁民和少數泉州人仍蜂湧移住澳口,汲汲營造家園。於是就地取花崗岩,打石砌牆、圍牆築屋,在各個澳口沿等高線形成依山的聚落。如今,「一村一澳口」的聚落型態構築了獨特的聚落景觀。而堅實的花崗岩牆體和滿佈壓瓦石的屋頂,造就馬祖鮮明的建築風格。方正的「一顆印」民居和醒目的廟宇封火山牆,相映成趣。 聚落內,村民習於操弄福州語腔調,世代傳頌澳口保護神:「白馬尊王」的守土聖跡;傳統生活仍如以往,村民依歲時節氣敬神祭祖,日復一日形塑著閩東人文的風采。而原是村民自家釀製的老酒,今日成為公營酒廠的招牌,名聲遠播。 1947年,國共內戰情勢慘烈,國民政府節節敗退,中共揮軍南下,國民政府將軍隊部署於東部沿海一帶的島嶼,企圖封鎖華中地區與福建廣東沿海一帶對外聯絡,建立防禦陣線,以嵊泗列島鎖住長江與上海,以舟山群島鎖住淮河與東海漁場,以馬祖列島控制閩江口流域,以金門封鎖廈門。
1968年起,馬祖地區國軍基於攻防一體之戰略指導與作戰任務需要,在南竿、北竿、西莒及東引,以人工一刀一斧、日夜不停趕工方式,在堅硬的花崗岩中開鑿出「北海坑道」、「安東坑道」、「午沙坑道」這些供登陸小艇使用之坑道碼頭,藉以保持戰力於九天之下,坑道密度為世界之冠,形成特殊的戰地景觀。馬祖島上充滿「反攻大陸」、「蔣總統萬歲」、「爭取最後勝利」、「軍民合作」、「枕戈待旦」等標語,以及馬祖各式各樣地下石室、坑道、射口、砲臺、廚房、廁所等防禦工事軍事據點。這些冷戰時期戰地文化景觀,反映了當時特殊的時空情境,加上燈塔、民間信仰廟宇及碑碣,符合世界遺產登錄標準第二及第四項。 馬祖獨特的戰地文化,兼具從「負面世界遺產」(對抗、戰爭、悲劇)走向「正面世界遺產」普世價值(和解、和平、喜劇)的教育示範與啟示作用,代表人類追求和平共存的普世價值,符合世界遺產登錄標準第三項。
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