文化資產局臺灣世界遺產潛力點
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今日瀏覽人次:898 累計瀏覽人次:4991032 / 2024年6月22日星期六
非物質文化遺產

上元節民俗

國家 : 臺灣
所在地區 : 亞洲及太平洋地區
遺產類別 : 臺灣非物質文化遺產潛力名錄

上元節,又稱「元宵節」、「燈節」、「小過年」,是漢人春節期間最後一個慶典活動,源於中國漢代君王所定之正月 15 日天官生,禮祀泰一(天帝),放燈火;以及上元日在宮庭與寺院「燃燈表佛」的習俗。此後道教「天官大帝」與佛教「燃燈表佛」習俗互相融合,流傳民間,隨著華人社會傳播,保存完整的歲時年節祈福慶典。每到上元之夜 (元宵),士族百姓、道佛寺廟一律掛燈,歷經各朝各代蔚為元宵燈會佳節及祈天官賜福的慶典行事,這樣的歲時節慶於清代隨移民傳入臺灣。

臺灣的上元節蘊含既深且廣的民俗內涵,例如,以米圓、供品祭祖祀神求福求圓滿,謂之「祭春」;台南有「摸春牛」討吉利;客家地區家戶加祈門神。上元夜(俗稱「元宵」)燈會中,「燈」有光明與添丁的涵意,傳統社會婦女於燈下行走祈求「鑽燈腳生卵葩」,伴隨著猜燈謎活動。謎語的隱寓詼諧逗趣,是一種特殊的文學藝術。「乞龜」民俗,向神明擲筊討得麵、米製成的龜,求長命百歲、家戶平安、添丁發財,求得者來年須加倍奉還。源自祈求天官賜福未來一年的精神,衍伸出多元面貌、活力十足的上元節民俗,因具有強烈的地方特色,許多已登錄為民俗文化資產,例如重要民俗「馬祖擺暝」,被當地人視為最重要的過年活動;知名的「平溪天燈節」、「鹽水蜂炮」,每年都有許多來自各地的民眾前往參與;還有場面壯烈的「炮炸肉身寒單爺」、「馬鳴山五年千歲吃飯擔」的平安繞境活動、「海豐巡男丁(燈)」等,難以盡述。

上元節民俗有向神明祈求、酬謝神明等各種目的,在當代社會中,除了傳統意義的延續,更承載著臺灣的飲食文化、民俗藝術的傳承,發揮文化傳承和地方認同的功能。如元宵的賞燈、飯擔的油飯,以及具在地特色的供品等料理及擺設裝飾;因應現代需求而生的以麵線、沙其瑪、金幣堆置而成的神龜的製作和裝飾美學;燈會的燈籠與花燈製作工藝等,保留傳統的同時也不斷進行創造。此外,乞龜與還龜生生不息的循環、全家團圓逛燈會的娛樂;結合廟會祭儀、提燈遊街、猜燈謎的社區活動;聯合遶境、改運、送喜、食福等民俗活動,由地方廟宇輪流舉辦的文化祭;各縣市輪辦的臺灣燈會等,各地的上元節民俗,經由文化資產保存與社區居民維護的共識,與時俱進,成為凝聚在地認同的力量、發揮教育意義、牽繫著人與人的關係,召喚遊子每年返鄉,重複實踐,延續著各地獨特的上元節民俗文化傳統。

Also known as “Yuanxiao Festival”, “Lantern Festival”, and “Little New Year”,Shangyuan Festival is the last celebratory activity of Han people during the LunarNew Year. The festival originates from the Han Dynasty when the emperor designated January 15th as the birthday of Tian Guan, and the god of heaven was worshiped with bright lights. There was also the custom of “burning lamps as offerings to Buddha” in the imperial palace and temples on January 15th. Subsequently, the Taoist “Tianguan Great Emperor” and Buddhist “burning lamps as offering to Buddha” custom became integrated and popular among the people. Widely spread in Chinese communities, the annual festival and ritual custom have been comprehensively preserved throughout history. On the night of Shangyuan Festival, lanterns are hung by the nobility and ordinary people, as well as Taoist and Buddhist temples throughout various dynasties in history, transforming into the Lantern Festival and a celebratory ritual praying for blessings from the gods. This annual festival was introduced to Taiwan in the Qing Dynasty by immigrants.
 
Taiwan’s Shangyuan Festival conveys in-depth and wide-spread folk customs, including the following: Round rice dumplings and offerings are provided to the ancestors and the gods to pray for good fortune and fulfillment, which is also called the “spring ritual”.In Tainan, there is a tradition of “touching the spring ox” for good luck. In addition, families in the Hakka region would pray to Menshens, the guardians of entrance thresholds. In the traditional society, on the night of the Shangyuan (commonly known as Yuanxiao) Lantern Festival, women would walk under the lanterns, seeking to “crawl under the lantern to give birth to babies with testicles” because the lantern symbolizes brightness and additional male offspring. There are also lantern riddle activities, which is a special type of literary art and the riddles often have hidden meanings and witty puns. The “begging for a turtle” folk custom is a process of asking for gods’ permission using divination blocks, seeking turtles made of flour and rice, symbolizing longevity,peace in the family, wealth, and giving birth to baby boys. Those whose wish come true must double their offerings in the following year.
 
The original spirit of praying for the gods’ blessings for the coming year has evolved into diverse customs full of vitality embedded with strong local characteristics, many of which have been registered as folk cultural assets. For example: The Matsu Islands Bei-Man custom of making offerings at night is regarded as an important New Year activity by the locals. The popular Pingxi Sky Lantern Festival and Yanshui Beehive Fireworks Festival attract many participants from all over the world every year. In addition, there are the spectacular Bombing Lord Handan activities, the Maming Mountain quinquennial Wang-ye Feast and peaceful parade activities, Haifeng Three Mountains King Temple Baby Boy Welcoming Ceremony, and many more.
 
The Shangyuan Festival customs serve various purposes including praying to the deities for blessings, and giving thanks to the deities. In contemporary society, in additionto heritage continuance, the festival also serves to pass on cultural traditions in food,folk art, as well as local identity. Examples include visiting lantern displays, enjoyment of steamed glutinous rice, as well as appreciation of various offerings, cuisines, and decorations with local characteristics. In response to the current requirements of the faithful, the festival also features the creation and aesthetics of divine turtle shapes, made by stacking together noodles, sachima dessert, or gold coins together, and the making and craftsmanship of lanterns for the Lantern Festival, preserving the tradition with endless creativity.
 
Furthermore, there is the iterative cycle of begging and returning of turtle-shaped pastries or bread, and the whole family entertainment of visiting the Lantern Festival. Communities may also integrate temple fair rituals, street parades with participants carrying lanterns, and lantern riddle activities. There are local temples that take turns organizing cultural festivals, which integrate the elements of folk customs such as pilgrimage, fortune modification, sending joy, and eating blessings. The Taiwan Lantern Festival, which is hosted in turn by counties and cities, and the Shangyuan folk local customs of each region, are protected under the cultural asset preservation system and maintained through the consensus of community residents, evolving with the times to become a force unifying local identity. These cultural traditions are educational,linking people’s relationships and calling on wandering natives to return to their hometown. Year after year, such unique Shangyuan Festival folk cultural heritage is practiced and passed on to the descendants.

馬祖列島位於臺灣海峽西側,由36座島礁組成,星羅棋佈於閩江口外,串連為一海上明珠。堅硬的花崗岩是大地天賦的素材,丘陵起伏、岩岸蜿蜒,構成馬祖的基礎地形特色。而遠從6,000年前新石器時代史前人類的島嶼生活遺跡、漢朝閩越族避走海外形成海洋民族、清初閩東沿海漁民和少數泉州人蜂湧移居,就地取材、打石砌牆、圍牆築屋,在各個澳口沿等高線形成依山的聚落,構成了現在馬祖獨特的聚落型態;至國共內戰,馬祖成為軍事重地,銘刻上坑道、碉堡、標語、砲臺等戰地烙印,在山陵起伏下,是一條條坑道的交織,密度為全世界之冠。

馬祖戰地文化是全世界從「熱戰」到「冷戰」,以致於邁向目前「和平共處」階段,保存最完整、最佳的示範點,更是全球獨一無二的戰爭文化遺址。德國柏林圍牆只留小段供人憑弔;南北韓38度線處於準戰爭狀態;越南前南、北越鴻溝消滅殆盡;馬祖對岸的馬尾對峙期間設施也已幾無保存。加上馬祖閩東文化之搭配,更是獨步全球的優勢。

另外,原被生態界以為已經絕種的「黑嘴端鳳頭燕鷗」,2000年再度在馬祖被發現,迄今統計全世界僅存50多隻黑嘴端鳳頭燕鷗,其中有20多隻出現於馬祖,是目前全世界最多者。
馬祖 1949年,閩江、舟山群島相繼失守,美軍見留守大陳島後勤線將會過長不易長期防守,建議國民政府放棄大陳島等地,轉進金門、馬祖,對於大陸福建沿海任何軍事行動皆可提前掌控,扼守其要點,馬祖列島便成為國共抗戰的最北端防線,次年成立「馬祖行政公署」,實行軍事管制,但在這期間,行政組織相當不穩,軍事部隊事權也不統一,因此,為減少權力機關層級繁複,使權力集中,於1956年設立了「戰地政務委員會」,簡化行政層級,事權統一,軍方強勢的控管著一切事務,居民生活嚴重受到監控,管制其人口外流,並將居民納入軍事管理,建立民防組織,遂由原先安平樂業的漁村,一躍成為冷戰時期反共前哨堡壘,作為民主世界與共產政權的最前哨,馬祖實有其重要的歷史意義。 馬祖雖未經歷重大砲火摧殘,但歷史留下的軍事遺跡,卻成為我們最珍貴的文化資產。金馬戰地文化於2009年獲遴選為臺灣17處潛力點之一。 回溯馬祖列島開發歷史,遠至六千年前約當新石器時代,就有史前人類在島嶼上過著漁獵和採集的生活。從東莒島大坪隴考古遺址出土文物研究,證實與福州地區的曇石山遺址同屬一個文化層,跟後來的閩越文化圈,又有相當程度的關聯性。至今馬祖人仍舊保留著蛇和青蛙的圖騰信仰,濃濃的閩越文化遺風,已經沈潛於島民生活的底層,常顯現於祭典上,表露出馬祖人報本原始的情結和質樸的一面。 漢武帝剿滅閩越國後,一批不願歸降的閩越族遁走海上,成為最早的海洋民族,這樣偉業卻被歷代皇朝貶為「蜑民」階級。馬祖人稱呼蜑民為「曲蹄仔」,馬祖有許多曲蹄仔開發和出沒的澳口,因此有「曲蹄澳」的地名。史載馬祖曾有兩次海禁,進行封島焦土並將島民內徙:一次在1387年,因防制倭人為禍;另一次在1661年,為防止東南沿海居民接濟鄭成功軍隊。 海禁卻困不住馬祖人冒險犯難的海洋性格。清初,閩東沿海漁民和少數泉州人仍蜂湧移住澳口,汲汲營造家園。於是就地取花崗岩,打石砌牆、圍牆築屋,在各個澳口沿等高線形成依山的聚落。如今,「一村一澳口」的聚落型態構築了獨特的聚落景觀。而堅實的花崗岩牆體和滿佈壓瓦石的屋頂,造就馬祖鮮明的建築風格。方正的「一顆印」民居和醒目的廟宇封火山牆,相映成趣。 聚落內,村民習於操弄福州語腔調,世代傳頌澳口保護神:「白馬尊王」的守土聖跡;傳統生活仍如以往,村民依歲時節氣敬神祭祖,日復一日形塑著閩東人文的風采。而原是村民自家釀製的老酒,今日成為公營酒廠的招牌,名聲遠播。 1947年,國共內戰情勢慘烈,國民政府節節敗退,中共揮軍南下,國民政府將軍隊部署於東部沿海一帶的島嶼,企圖封鎖華中地區與福建廣東沿海一帶對外聯絡,建立防禦陣線,以嵊泗列島鎖住長江與上海,以舟山群島鎖住淮河與東海漁場,以馬祖列島控制閩江口流域,以金門封鎖廈門。
1968年起,馬祖地區國軍基於攻防一體之戰略指導與作戰任務需要,在南竿、北竿、西莒及東引,以人工一刀一斧、日夜不停趕工方式,在堅硬的花崗岩中開鑿出「北海坑道」、「安東坑道」、「午沙坑道」這些供登陸小艇使用之坑道碼頭,藉以保持戰力於九天之下,坑道密度為世界之冠,形成特殊的戰地景觀。馬祖島上充滿「反攻大陸」、「蔣總統萬歲」、「爭取最後勝利」、「軍民合作」、「枕戈待旦」等標語,以及馬祖各式各樣地下石室、坑道、射口、砲臺、廚房、廁所等防禦工事軍事據點。這些冷戰時期戰地文化景觀,反映了當時特殊的時空情境,加上燈塔、民間信仰廟宇及碑碣,符合世界遺產登錄標準第二及第四項。 馬祖獨特的戰地文化,兼具從「負面世界遺產」(對抗、戰爭、悲劇)走向「正面世界遺產」普世價值(和解、和平、喜劇)的教育示範與啟示作用,代表人類追求和平共存的普世價值,符合世界遺產登錄標準第三項。
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