文化資產局臺灣世界遺產潛力點
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非物質文化遺產

北管音樂戲曲

Beiguan Opera and Music
國家 : 臺灣
所在地區 : 亞洲及太平洋地區
遺產類別 : 臺灣非物質文化遺產潛力名錄

「北管」為與「南管」相對的稱呼,其音樂的內容非常龐雜,以樂器區分有鼓吹類的「牌子」、絲竹類的「譜」,還有「細曲」或「崑腔」的藝術歌曲,根據聲腔劃分又有福路、 西皮與崑腔等。互有競爭關係的福路(亦稱福祿、舊路)與西皮(亦稱西路、新路)兩 大派別,主要差別可見於樂器、唱腔、信仰:福路使用椰子殼製的「殼仔絃」,多梆子 腔系統,信奉西秦王爺;西皮則用桂竹筒製的「吊規仔」,多皮黃腔系統,信奉田都元帥。 北管戲,若由業餘子弟演出者稱「子弟戲」,屬性不同於專業演員演出的「亂彈戲」, 生旦淨末丑的角色中,又細分為頂六柱和下六柱。丑角使用方言做逗笑表演,其餘角 色皆用「官話」;小生與旦角使用細口(假嗓)發聲,其餘角色使用粗口(本嗓)演唱。 主要的樂器,依福路、西皮系統與文武場而不同,常用的文場樂器有:吊規仔(西皮)、 殼仔絃(福路)、三絃、揚琴、嗩吶、笛子等;武場有:單皮鼓、梆子、搖板、木魚、堂鼓、 通鼓、大鑼、小鑼、響盞、鐃鈸等。北管於清代傳入臺灣之後,成為民間最流行的音樂戲曲,由俗諺:「吃肉吃三層,看戲看亂彈」,即可見其地位。

北管館閣,分為職業戲班及業餘子弟團。日治時期職業戲班達 30 團以上,子弟團曾 高達上千團,著名的有彰化梨春園與集樂軒、基隆得意堂與聚樂社,以及宜蘭總蘭社、 福蘭社等。團員閒暇時至曲館學習戲曲及樂器,或聘有先生教學,並經常配合民俗祭 典的藝陣和戲劇表演。

因組織龐大和民間社群活動關係密切,館閣競爭激烈,清代多有西皮與福路的對抗 械鬥、中部的軒園拼,以及各地子弟團的擺場拼陣等。迎神賽會時為了輸人不輸陣, 團員除不斷充實技藝,出陣及演出時也搭配燈托、彩牌、繡旗、鼓架、鑼槓與春榭等 隆重精美的文物排場,使廟會氣氛更顯熱鬧激昂。 隨著時代與民眾風尚的變遷,館閣雖因民間廟會、喪祭等需要,尚能維持一定數量, 但團員多年事已高後繼乏人,大多只演奏樂曲很少演戲,戲曲面臨失傳處境。目前北 管音樂、戲曲、亂彈戲等已登錄為文化資產,各地的表演團體和表演者做為保存者, 以政府補助的傳習計劃和各種活動場合演出機會進行傳習;許多子弟團也透過鼓勵 年輕學子加入、與學校課程合作等方式,積極傳承。


Beiguan and Nanguan are relative terms referring to musical elements from northern vs southern regions in China, respectively. Beiguan music is quite complex, and may include “Pai Zi” that is performed with wind instruments, “Pu” that is performed by string and woodwind instruments, and “Refined Songs” or “Kunqiang” types of artistic singing, which are further divided into Fulu, Xipi, and Kunqiang according to the vocal tones. Two competing major forms, Fulu (also called Jiulu) and Xipi (also called Xilu, Xinlu) differ mainly in the types of instruments used, singing style, and beliefs. Fulu is characterized by the use of Kezaixian, a bowed string instrument made with coconut shell, mostly performing the Bangzi (wooden-clapper) timbre system, with the belief in Xiqin Wangye. On the other hand, Xipi is characterized by the use of Diaoguizai made with osmanthus bamboo tubes, mostly performing the Pihuang timbre system, and believing in Tiandou Yuanshuai.


When it is performed by amateur students, Beiguan Opera is known as “Student Opera”, which is different from the Luantan Opera performed by professional actors. There are five major categories of players, sheng (male protagonists), dan (female protagonists), jing (forceful character roles), Mo (supporting roles), and Chou (comedic roles), which may be further subdivided into top six roles and bottom six roles. The Chou players would use local dialects in their comedic performances, while all other characters would speak the “official language”. Xiaoshen and Dan players would speak using their thin (falsetto) voice, while all other characters would sing in their thick (full) voice.


The main instruments used are also different depending on the Fulu or Xipi system, or whether it is a dramatic or martial art performance. Instruments commonly used in dramatic performances include: Diaoguizai (Xipi), Kezaixian (Fulu), sanxian, dulcimer, Suona, and flute. Instruments used in martial arts performances include: single-headed drum, claves, wobble board, wood block, tanggu (ceremonial hall drum), tonggu, large gong, small gong, mini gong, crotales, etc. After being introduced to Taiwan in the Qing Dynasty, Beiguan opera became the most popular musical opera, which is evident based on the saying: "The best meat to eat is pork belly, and the best opera to go to is Luantan Opera".


Beiguan organizations are divided into professional theatre troupes and amateur student troupes. During the Japanese colonial period, there were more than 30 professional opera troupes, and up to thousands of amateur troupes, including the famous Lichunyuan and Jilexuan music clubs in Changhua, Deyitang and Jule Club in Keelung, and the Zonglan Club and Fulan Club in Yilan County. Members would go to the clubs in their spare time to learn operas and musical instruments, or hire teachers to teach them. They often collaborated with art performers and theatrical performances during folk festivals. 


Due to the large size of Beiguan organizations and close relationship with civic communities, the competition was fierce. In the Qing Dynasty, fights occurred frequently between the Xipi and Fulu groups, and between Jilexuan and Lichunyuan groups in central Taiwan. Student groups all across Taiwan would also vie for performances. During god-welcoming ceremonies, in order to look good despite having fewer performers, each team member would continuously enhance their skills. During parades and performances, magnificent and exquisite cultural artifacts such as lantern stands, a colorful plaque representing the organization, embroidered flags, the elaborate artistic drum stands, gongs, and the spring pavilion are presented, which enlivens the atmosphere at the temple fair.

The interest and customs of the public changes along with the times. Even though a certain number of Beiguan clubs still remain due to the demands for temple fairs and funerals, club members tend to be older in age, and few successors are in sight. Most club members now only play the music and seldom put on theatrical performances, so the art of Beiguan Opera is in danger of disappearing. Currently, Beiguan music, opera, and Luantan Opera have been registered as cultural assets. As cultural preservers, various performance groups and performers across Taiwan are continuing the heritage by teaching programs subsidized by the government, or performing at various venues. Many amateur troupes also actively pass on the tradition by encouraging young student members and collaborating with courses in schools.  
 

馬祖列島位於臺灣海峽西側,由36座島礁組成,星羅棋佈於閩江口外,串連為一海上明珠。堅硬的花崗岩是大地天賦的素材,丘陵起伏、岩岸蜿蜒,構成馬祖的基礎地形特色。而遠從6,000年前新石器時代史前人類的島嶼生活遺跡、漢朝閩越族避走海外形成海洋民族、清初閩東沿海漁民和少數泉州人蜂湧移居,就地取材、打石砌牆、圍牆築屋,在各個澳口沿等高線形成依山的聚落,構成了現在馬祖獨特的聚落型態;至國共內戰,馬祖成為軍事重地,銘刻上坑道、碉堡、標語、砲臺等戰地烙印,在山陵起伏下,是一條條坑道的交織,密度為全世界之冠。

馬祖戰地文化是全世界從「熱戰」到「冷戰」,以致於邁向目前「和平共處」階段,保存最完整、最佳的示範點,更是全球獨一無二的戰爭文化遺址。德國柏林圍牆只留小段供人憑弔;南北韓38度線處於準戰爭狀態;越南前南、北越鴻溝消滅殆盡;馬祖對岸的馬尾對峙期間設施也已幾無保存。加上馬祖閩東文化之搭配,更是獨步全球的優勢。

另外,原被生態界以為已經絕種的「黑嘴端鳳頭燕鷗」,2000年再度在馬祖被發現,迄今統計全世界僅存50多隻黑嘴端鳳頭燕鷗,其中有20多隻出現於馬祖,是目前全世界最多者。
馬祖 1949年,閩江、舟山群島相繼失守,美軍見留守大陳島後勤線將會過長不易長期防守,建議國民政府放棄大陳島等地,轉進金門、馬祖,對於大陸福建沿海任何軍事行動皆可提前掌控,扼守其要點,馬祖列島便成為國共抗戰的最北端防線,次年成立「馬祖行政公署」,實行軍事管制,但在這期間,行政組織相當不穩,軍事部隊事權也不統一,因此,為減少權力機關層級繁複,使權力集中,於1956年設立了「戰地政務委員會」,簡化行政層級,事權統一,軍方強勢的控管著一切事務,居民生活嚴重受到監控,管制其人口外流,並將居民納入軍事管理,建立民防組織,遂由原先安平樂業的漁村,一躍成為冷戰時期反共前哨堡壘,作為民主世界與共產政權的最前哨,馬祖實有其重要的歷史意義。 馬祖雖未經歷重大砲火摧殘,但歷史留下的軍事遺跡,卻成為我們最珍貴的文化資產。金馬戰地文化於2009年獲遴選為臺灣17處潛力點之一。 回溯馬祖列島開發歷史,遠至六千年前約當新石器時代,就有史前人類在島嶼上過著漁獵和採集的生活。從東莒島大坪隴考古遺址出土文物研究,證實與福州地區的曇石山遺址同屬一個文化層,跟後來的閩越文化圈,又有相當程度的關聯性。至今馬祖人仍舊保留著蛇和青蛙的圖騰信仰,濃濃的閩越文化遺風,已經沈潛於島民生活的底層,常顯現於祭典上,表露出馬祖人報本原始的情結和質樸的一面。 漢武帝剿滅閩越國後,一批不願歸降的閩越族遁走海上,成為最早的海洋民族,這樣偉業卻被歷代皇朝貶為「蜑民」階級。馬祖人稱呼蜑民為「曲蹄仔」,馬祖有許多曲蹄仔開發和出沒的澳口,因此有「曲蹄澳」的地名。史載馬祖曾有兩次海禁,進行封島焦土並將島民內徙:一次在1387年,因防制倭人為禍;另一次在1661年,為防止東南沿海居民接濟鄭成功軍隊。 海禁卻困不住馬祖人冒險犯難的海洋性格。清初,閩東沿海漁民和少數泉州人仍蜂湧移住澳口,汲汲營造家園。於是就地取花崗岩,打石砌牆、圍牆築屋,在各個澳口沿等高線形成依山的聚落。如今,「一村一澳口」的聚落型態構築了獨特的聚落景觀。而堅實的花崗岩牆體和滿佈壓瓦石的屋頂,造就馬祖鮮明的建築風格。方正的「一顆印」民居和醒目的廟宇封火山牆,相映成趣。 聚落內,村民習於操弄福州語腔調,世代傳頌澳口保護神:「白馬尊王」的守土聖跡;傳統生活仍如以往,村民依歲時節氣敬神祭祖,日復一日形塑著閩東人文的風采。而原是村民自家釀製的老酒,今日成為公營酒廠的招牌,名聲遠播。 1947年,國共內戰情勢慘烈,國民政府節節敗退,中共揮軍南下,國民政府將軍隊部署於東部沿海一帶的島嶼,企圖封鎖華中地區與福建廣東沿海一帶對外聯絡,建立防禦陣線,以嵊泗列島鎖住長江與上海,以舟山群島鎖住淮河與東海漁場,以馬祖列島控制閩江口流域,以金門封鎖廈門。
1968年起,馬祖地區國軍基於攻防一體之戰略指導與作戰任務需要,在南竿、北竿、西莒及東引,以人工一刀一斧、日夜不停趕工方式,在堅硬的花崗岩中開鑿出「北海坑道」、「安東坑道」、「午沙坑道」這些供登陸小艇使用之坑道碼頭,藉以保持戰力於九天之下,坑道密度為世界之冠,形成特殊的戰地景觀。馬祖島上充滿「反攻大陸」、「蔣總統萬歲」、「爭取最後勝利」、「軍民合作」、「枕戈待旦」等標語,以及馬祖各式各樣地下石室、坑道、射口、砲臺、廚房、廁所等防禦工事軍事據點。這些冷戰時期戰地文化景觀,反映了當時特殊的時空情境,加上燈塔、民間信仰廟宇及碑碣,符合世界遺產登錄標準第二及第四項。 馬祖獨特的戰地文化,兼具從「負面世界遺產」(對抗、戰爭、悲劇)走向「正面世界遺產」普世價值(和解、和平、喜劇)的教育示範與啟示作用,代表人類追求和平共存的普世價值,符合世界遺產登錄標準第三項。
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