文化資產局臺灣世界遺產潛力點
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今日瀏覽人次:1014 累計瀏覽人次:5067544 / 2024年7月24日星期三
非物質文化遺產

糊紙

Goo-Zhua (Pasted-Paper Sculpture)
國家 : 臺灣
所在地區 : 亞洲及太平洋地區
遺產類別 : 臺灣非物質文化遺產潛力名錄

「糊紙」又稱紙糊、紙紮,顧名思義是以棉紙、宣紙、金紙、色紙甚至報紙等,各種紙材為主的工藝,骨架多為細韌的竹篾,運用紮、綁、糊、剪、雕、繪、寫、印、揉、摺等技巧,紮塑出各式神靈活現的紙藝品,其製作與使用廣泛遍佈於臺灣、中國、香港、馬來西亞、新加坡等國的漢人社會。

糊紙早在清代即頗為盛行,主要使用於民俗信仰與生命禮俗中,輔助儀式及藉由儀式轉化供神鬼享用,例如糊紙神像須經過開光點眼儀式;糊紙靈厝在尺寸方面須遵循文公尺、丁蘭尺之吉凶。糊紙的聖俗轉化須以火燒化來進行,達成與神鬼溝通及消災祈福等目的。

就用途而言,糊紙主要可分為「紅事」與「白事」兩大類。前者如各種醮壇所用之醮燈、三清天尊、四大元帥;民間信仰的紙糊神像、王船;或是普度法會的觀世音與大士爺、神虎將軍、普度山、翰林院、同歸所、沐浴亭及水燈、車藏等;祭解補運法事中所使用的替身紙人;成年禮的七娘媽亭、乞花的紙花、婚俗中吉祥的舅仔燈、拜天公的燈座等。後者如喪事或法事所用的各式紙品和魂身、桌頭嫻等紙人;提供亡者的靈厝、生活用品等;此外,還有糊龍頭獅頭、燈籠、風箏、紙傘、紙扇的製作也與糊紙相關。

藝術表現方面,糊紙運用許多傳統的用色原理以及紋飾,各藝師有不同的造型與裝飾手藝特色,隨著現代化的腳步,除了各式色紙、錫箔紙等亮麗的紙料,也運用布料等其他材質,以及電腦印刷圖案的各式紙料,造就糊紙活潑絢麗的形色。

糊紙的工藝技術以家族傳承或收授徒弟的方式傳承,並仰賴眾人在民俗場域重複地實踐使用,才得以存續。然而,因為社會變遷、傳統觀念的式微、生活習慣的改變,以及簡便的印刷紙品和環保議題,使得以手工製作、燒化為主要使用方式的糊紙需求減少、規格縮小,技術與藝術性降低,面臨著無人承繼的問題。目前,糊紙已登錄為傳統工藝類項的文化資產,各縣市共有 7 位保存者之認定。糊紙中的燈籠工藝,也有 1 位保存者登錄於保存技術及保存者類項,7 位列冊追蹤。

在民俗場域須燒化為灰燼的糊紙近年來也走入展覽場館,由藝師特別製作精緻的糊紙作品作為一種工藝展示出來,甚至成為歐洲各國場館的典藏品。新一代的年輕藝師,也致力於糊紙文化資產的傳承,結合藝術創作、教育推廣,嘗試讓糊紙與現代人的生活連結起來。


Also known as paper-paste and zhizha (paper tying), “pasted-paper sculpture” is a handicraft that sets up a skeleton with thin and resilient bamboo strips, before pasting various types of paper on top using cotton paper, xuan paper (rice paper), gold foil,color paper, and even newspaper. Various techniques, such as wrapping, tying, pasting,cutting,sculpting, drawing, writing, printing, rubbing, and folding are applied, to create the final lively papercraft. The production and usage of such paper art is widespread in Han Chinese societies in Taiwan, China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, and Singapore.

As early as the Qing Dynasty, the use of pasted-paper sculpture was quite popular in folk beliefs and life rituals. For example, pasted-paper statues of deities may be used in an auxiliary ceremony, transforming the object as offerings for the gods and spirits after undergoing a deity consecration ritual. For the making of a pasted-paper house, it is important to reference the Luban ruler, to choose measurements that are auspicious and avoid the ominous ones. The transformation of a pasted-paper culture from the secular to the sacred is achieved with incineration, as a way to communicate with the gods and spirits, to seek blessings as well as deliverance from evil.

The use of pasted-paper sculptures may be categorized into "red events" and "white events". The former may include the following: various objects on the ritual altars, such as the ritual lighting, and ritual figures such as the Three Divine Taoist Teachers and Four Taoist Heavenly Martials.

For folk beliefs, pasted-paper art would include deity statues and the Wang Ye boat.For Purdue ceremonies, paper deities such as Guanyin, Dashiye, and the Tiger God General would be included, as well as the backdrop such as the Purdue Mountain, Hanlin Academy, Tonggui Hall (where all wandering spirits may stay during the ritual ceremony), a bathing pavilion, floating lanterns, and Che-Zhuang (a tubular religious tool that spins to guide the spirits from hell to the heavenly world).

During a ritual amelioration, paper figures would be used in place of real people.For the coming-of-age ceremony, pasted-paper backdrops would include the Pavilion of Qiniuma (a weaver and Jade Emperor’s Seventh Daughter), paper flowers, uncle lantern for an auspicious marriage, and the lamp stand for the ceremony of praying to the Jade Emperor.

The "white events" include various pasted-paper sculptures for funerals or rituals,paper figures symbolic of the souls, paper-maids, paper houses, daily necessities for the deceased, and various objects including dragon and lion heads, lanterns, kites, paper umbrellas, and paper fans.

In terms of artistic expressions, pasted-paper sculptures apply a multitude of traditional color principles and patterns, and each craftsperson may cultivate their own unique styles and decorative characteristics. Modernization of the art has provided a rich variety of color papers, tin foils, fabric, computer-printed paper, and other shiny paper materials.

The craftsmanship and techniques of pasted-paper sculpture have been passed down via families or apprenticeship, as well as the repeated usage in folk customs by the general public. However, hand-crafted products that are mostly made to be incinerated are much less in demand due to community transformations, decline of traditional concepts,changes in living habits, easy-to-obtain printed paper products, as well as environmental protection issues. As a result, this traditional art has become smaller in scale, with a reduction in skill and artistry, and now faces the challenge of the lack of successors.Currently, pasted-paper sculpture has been registered as a traditional craft cultural asset,with seven recognized preservers from various counties and cities. For the pasted-paper lantern craft, currently there is one preserver registered in the skills preservation and preserver category, with seven artists recorded and traced.

Pasted-paper sculptures, which are made to be burnt to ashes in folk customs, have been featured in exhibitions in recent years. Exquisite pasted-paper sculpture crafts created by artists have been displayed, and even treasured as part of a collection in various venues in Europe. A new generation of young craftsmen are also dedicated to heritage continuance of the pasted-paper sculpture culture asset, by integrating artistic creations and educational promotion, in an attempt to integrate the art of pasted-paper sculptures with the lives of people in modern times.
 

馬祖列島位於臺灣海峽西側,由36座島礁組成,星羅棋佈於閩江口外,串連為一海上明珠。堅硬的花崗岩是大地天賦的素材,丘陵起伏、岩岸蜿蜒,構成馬祖的基礎地形特色。而遠從6,000年前新石器時代史前人類的島嶼生活遺跡、漢朝閩越族避走海外形成海洋民族、清初閩東沿海漁民和少數泉州人蜂湧移居,就地取材、打石砌牆、圍牆築屋,在各個澳口沿等高線形成依山的聚落,構成了現在馬祖獨特的聚落型態;至國共內戰,馬祖成為軍事重地,銘刻上坑道、碉堡、標語、砲臺等戰地烙印,在山陵起伏下,是一條條坑道的交織,密度為全世界之冠。

馬祖戰地文化是全世界從「熱戰」到「冷戰」,以致於邁向目前「和平共處」階段,保存最完整、最佳的示範點,更是全球獨一無二的戰爭文化遺址。德國柏林圍牆只留小段供人憑弔;南北韓38度線處於準戰爭狀態;越南前南、北越鴻溝消滅殆盡;馬祖對岸的馬尾對峙期間設施也已幾無保存。加上馬祖閩東文化之搭配,更是獨步全球的優勢。

另外,原被生態界以為已經絕種的「黑嘴端鳳頭燕鷗」,2000年再度在馬祖被發現,迄今統計全世界僅存50多隻黑嘴端鳳頭燕鷗,其中有20多隻出現於馬祖,是目前全世界最多者。
馬祖 1949年,閩江、舟山群島相繼失守,美軍見留守大陳島後勤線將會過長不易長期防守,建議國民政府放棄大陳島等地,轉進金門、馬祖,對於大陸福建沿海任何軍事行動皆可提前掌控,扼守其要點,馬祖列島便成為國共抗戰的最北端防線,次年成立「馬祖行政公署」,實行軍事管制,但在這期間,行政組織相當不穩,軍事部隊事權也不統一,因此,為減少權力機關層級繁複,使權力集中,於1956年設立了「戰地政務委員會」,簡化行政層級,事權統一,軍方強勢的控管著一切事務,居民生活嚴重受到監控,管制其人口外流,並將居民納入軍事管理,建立民防組織,遂由原先安平樂業的漁村,一躍成為冷戰時期反共前哨堡壘,作為民主世界與共產政權的最前哨,馬祖實有其重要的歷史意義。 馬祖雖未經歷重大砲火摧殘,但歷史留下的軍事遺跡,卻成為我們最珍貴的文化資產。金馬戰地文化於2009年獲遴選為臺灣17處潛力點之一。 回溯馬祖列島開發歷史,遠至六千年前約當新石器時代,就有史前人類在島嶼上過著漁獵和採集的生活。從東莒島大坪隴考古遺址出土文物研究,證實與福州地區的曇石山遺址同屬一個文化層,跟後來的閩越文化圈,又有相當程度的關聯性。至今馬祖人仍舊保留著蛇和青蛙的圖騰信仰,濃濃的閩越文化遺風,已經沈潛於島民生活的底層,常顯現於祭典上,表露出馬祖人報本原始的情結和質樸的一面。 漢武帝剿滅閩越國後,一批不願歸降的閩越族遁走海上,成為最早的海洋民族,這樣偉業卻被歷代皇朝貶為「蜑民」階級。馬祖人稱呼蜑民為「曲蹄仔」,馬祖有許多曲蹄仔開發和出沒的澳口,因此有「曲蹄澳」的地名。史載馬祖曾有兩次海禁,進行封島焦土並將島民內徙:一次在1387年,因防制倭人為禍;另一次在1661年,為防止東南沿海居民接濟鄭成功軍隊。 海禁卻困不住馬祖人冒險犯難的海洋性格。清初,閩東沿海漁民和少數泉州人仍蜂湧移住澳口,汲汲營造家園。於是就地取花崗岩,打石砌牆、圍牆築屋,在各個澳口沿等高線形成依山的聚落。如今,「一村一澳口」的聚落型態構築了獨特的聚落景觀。而堅實的花崗岩牆體和滿佈壓瓦石的屋頂,造就馬祖鮮明的建築風格。方正的「一顆印」民居和醒目的廟宇封火山牆,相映成趣。 聚落內,村民習於操弄福州語腔調,世代傳頌澳口保護神:「白馬尊王」的守土聖跡;傳統生活仍如以往,村民依歲時節氣敬神祭祖,日復一日形塑著閩東人文的風采。而原是村民自家釀製的老酒,今日成為公營酒廠的招牌,名聲遠播。 1947年,國共內戰情勢慘烈,國民政府節節敗退,中共揮軍南下,國民政府將軍隊部署於東部沿海一帶的島嶼,企圖封鎖華中地區與福建廣東沿海一帶對外聯絡,建立防禦陣線,以嵊泗列島鎖住長江與上海,以舟山群島鎖住淮河與東海漁場,以馬祖列島控制閩江口流域,以金門封鎖廈門。
1968年起,馬祖地區國軍基於攻防一體之戰略指導與作戰任務需要,在南竿、北竿、西莒及東引,以人工一刀一斧、日夜不停趕工方式,在堅硬的花崗岩中開鑿出「北海坑道」、「安東坑道」、「午沙坑道」這些供登陸小艇使用之坑道碼頭,藉以保持戰力於九天之下,坑道密度為世界之冠,形成特殊的戰地景觀。馬祖島上充滿「反攻大陸」、「蔣總統萬歲」、「爭取最後勝利」、「軍民合作」、「枕戈待旦」等標語,以及馬祖各式各樣地下石室、坑道、射口、砲臺、廚房、廁所等防禦工事軍事據點。這些冷戰時期戰地文化景觀,反映了當時特殊的時空情境,加上燈塔、民間信仰廟宇及碑碣,符合世界遺產登錄標準第二及第四項。 馬祖獨特的戰地文化,兼具從「負面世界遺產」(對抗、戰爭、悲劇)走向「正面世界遺產」普世價值(和解、和平、喜劇)的教育示範與啟示作用,代表人類追求和平共存的普世價值,符合世界遺產登錄標準第三項。
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