文化資產局臺灣世界遺產潛力點
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非物質文化遺產

賽夏族矮靈祭

Saisiyat paSta'ay (Ritual For the Spirits of the Dwarves)
國家 : 臺灣
所在地區 : 亞洲及太平洋地區
遺產類別 : 臺灣非物質文化遺產潛力名錄

賽夏族為臺灣原住民族的一支,分為南北兩群,北賽夏分佈在新竹縣五峰鄉大隘社。南賽夏分佈在苗栗縣南庄鄉東河村、蓬萊村、南江村、泰安鄉錦水村、獅潭鄉百壽村。賽夏族是典型的氏族社會,氏族是民族活動的基本單位,社會組織的運作,依實際生
活及宗教活動的需要,由各氏族負責舉辦不同的祭儀。

其中 paSta'ay(矮靈祭)最為重要,由朱姓主祭,南北兩群兩個祭團皆舉辦,是全族參與的祭典。相傳在古代賽夏族和ta'ay(矮人)毗鄰而居, ta'ay(矮人)傳授賽夏人農耕、醫學、歌舞、祭祀的知識及和文化,所以賽夏人將其視為恩人,每逢豐收慶典之時就邀請 ta'ay(矮人)前來飲酒作樂,後因矮人欺負賽夏婦女,族人遂憤而設計殺死 ta'ay(矮人),存活的 ta'ay(矮人)便降下詛咒,賽夏人惟恐 ta'ay(矮人)靈魂作祟,於是舉辦 paSta'ay(矮靈祭),悼念、安撫矮靈。paSta'ay(矮靈祭)於收穫完成後的月圓舉行,多訂在農曆10 月 15 日前後,由南賽夏於南庄鄉向天湖起祭,隔天北賽夏於五峰鄉大隘續祭,本為每年舉行,日治時期因政府禁止,改成兩年一小祭,十年一大祭,大祭祭場有紅白相間的祭旗(sinadon)飄揚。祭典的準備和進行還有諸多禁忌與規定,例如相傳 ta'ay(矮人)會聚集於祭旗觀看祭典,故嚴禁外人觸碰,儀式進行中必須一直保持豎立,否則將招致災難;準備期間不可與人爭執,否則將招致矮靈不悅等,族人均嚴謹遵行。

paSta'ay(矮靈祭)祭典的祭司由朱姓擔任,南祭團的司祭固定由朱家大宗擔任,北祭團的祭司則由朱姓各家輪流擔任。每到祭典前一個月或兩個月,南北群互派代表共同協商,由各姓氏長老代表參加,決定舉行祭典日期,並結繩約期。全族人在祭典日期決定後就開始練習平日禁唱的祭歌,由族人擅於歌唱者擔任教唱。此時每位族人或房舍、器具等物品都得繫上芒草,以期獲得庇佑。正式開始時,在天明之際唱第一首招請之歌(raraol),舂打糯米蒸成米糕,連同酒和魚供予矮靈,次日展開連續三晚通宵達旦不間斷的儀式歌舞以迎靈、娛靈、逐靈,黎明之際進行送靈歌舞,並有棄芒草結、折毀榛木架等一連串儀式。祭典期間,族人在言行舉止上,均須謹言慎行,和睦相處。

paSta'ay(矮靈祭)祭歌相傳為倖存的兩位 ta'ay(矮人)所教導,既有 ta'ay(矮人)對賽夏人的控訴,亦有提醒族人要善待親友、勤奮節儉與飲水思源等訓勉及叮寧,每首祭歌以植物尾音押韻,唱法特殊,曲調哀淒,伴隨著臂鈴(tabaa'sang)搖動起舞的撞擊聲,與舞步的進退快慢,交織出 paSta'ay(矮靈祭)中神人交融的神祕意象,以及融貫於賽夏族人間團結合作、代代承傳的情感價值。歷經社會變遷,語言文化面臨流失的現在,paSta'ay(矮靈祭)的實踐,可以喚回外地族人,凝聚著族人的認同。族人也透過文化資產的保存維護,致力於紀錄和傳承。

One of the indigenous people in Taiwan, the Saisiyat tribe consists of a northern group and a southern group. The northern Saisiyat people are located in the Wufeng Township Dayi Community of Hsinchu County, and the southern Saisiyat people are distributed across Miaoli County in Donghe Village, Penglai Village, Nanjiang Village in Nanzhuang Township, Jinshui Village in Tai’an Township, and Baishou Village in Shitan Township. The Saisiyat tribe is a typical clan society, where clans are the basic unit of tribal activities and the running of social organizations, which are responsible for holding different rituals in accordance with the needs of daily living and religious activities. As the most important ritual, paSta’ay is hosted by the Titiyon clan, organized by ritual groups in the north and in the south, and attended by all tribal members.

Legend has it that the Saisiyat people and the ta’ay people lived next to each other. The Saisiyat regarded the ta’ay people as benefactors because they taught the Saisiyat people about farming, medicine, song and dance, and ritual knowledge and culture. During harvest festivals, the Saisiyat people would invite the ta’ay to drink and party. However, some ta’ay people took advantage of Saisiyat women, so the Saisiyat schemed to kill the ta’ay people
in anger, and the surviving ta’ay people placed a curse in return. Fearful of the ta’ay’s revenge, the Saisiyat would hold paSta’ay rituals to pay tribute and appease their spirits.

The full moon after the harvest is when the paSta’ay is held, around October 15th of the lunar calendar. The southern Saisiyat group usually starts the ritual at Xiantien Lake in Nanzhuang Township, which is continued by the northern Saisiyat group at Wufeng Township’s Dayi community on the next day. Forbidden by the Japanese colonial government, the traditional annual ritual was changed to a small ceremony biennially and a grand ceremony every decade. At the grand ceremony, the red and white sinadon ritual flag flies at the venue. There are numerous taboos and rules for the preparation of the ritual and the ceremonial process. For example, it is said that the ta’ay people would congregate around the ritual flag to observe the ceremony, thus all outsiders are forbidden to touch the flag, which must be kept upright during the ritual to avoid any calamity. In addition, disputes with other people during the preparatory period are forbidden to avoid displeasing the ta’ay spirits. These constraints are strictly followed by all tribesmen.

The priest of the paSta’ay ritual is served by someone from the Titiyon clan. Usually,the family of the eldest son of the Titiyon clan serves as the priest for the southern ritual group, while the remaining Titiyon clan families take turns serving as the priest of the northern ritual group. A month or two prior to the ritual, clan elders from both northern and southern groups meet to iron out the details, to decide on the date by tying a knot. After the date is set, the whole tribe begins to practice singing the ritual songs forbidden on regular days, led by good singers in the tribe. In addition, silvergrass knots are tied around everyone in the tribe, on every dwelling, tools and various objects for protection. When the ritual starts officially, the first song of summon (Raraol) is sung at the break of day, and glutinous rice is pounded and steamed into rice cakes,which is offered to the ta’ay spirit along with wine and fish. On the following day,ceremonial song and dance begins for three continuous nights and days, including Raraol (summoning spirits), Kisitomal (entertaining spirits), Papatnawasak (expelling spirits), and the Papaosa (sending away spirits) singing and dancing at dawn. There is also a series of ceremonies to remove the silvergrass knots, and breaking the hazel wood frames. During the ritual period, tribesmen must be cautious with their words and deeds, and get along with each other.

According to legend, the paSta’ay ritual song was taught by the two surviving ta’ay people, which includes charges against the Saisiyat people, and reminders and teachings to the tribesmen to be kind to their friends and family, to work hard, be frugal, and be grateful. Each ritual song uses an ending sound of plants for rhymes, with special singing style and sad melodies. The sound made while dancing with the tabaa'sang (hip bells) and the fast or slow movements of the dance steps interweave to create the mystical imagery of the gods and people becoming one in the paSta’ay, and the spirit of teamwork and tribal heritage of the Saisiyat people.

After social changes, the Saisiyat tribe is currently facing the challenge of the loss of language and culture. Perhaps the practice of paSta’ay may bring back tribesmen from afar, to enhance tribal identity. The tribe is also dedicated to recording and passing on the heritage through the preservation of cultural assets.

馬祖列島位於臺灣海峽西側,由36座島礁組成,星羅棋佈於閩江口外,串連為一海上明珠。堅硬的花崗岩是大地天賦的素材,丘陵起伏、岩岸蜿蜒,構成馬祖的基礎地形特色。而遠從6,000年前新石器時代史前人類的島嶼生活遺跡、漢朝閩越族避走海外形成海洋民族、清初閩東沿海漁民和少數泉州人蜂湧移居,就地取材、打石砌牆、圍牆築屋,在各個澳口沿等高線形成依山的聚落,構成了現在馬祖獨特的聚落型態;至國共內戰,馬祖成為軍事重地,銘刻上坑道、碉堡、標語、砲臺等戰地烙印,在山陵起伏下,是一條條坑道的交織,密度為全世界之冠。

馬祖戰地文化是全世界從「熱戰」到「冷戰」,以致於邁向目前「和平共處」階段,保存最完整、最佳的示範點,更是全球獨一無二的戰爭文化遺址。德國柏林圍牆只留小段供人憑弔;南北韓38度線處於準戰爭狀態;越南前南、北越鴻溝消滅殆盡;馬祖對岸的馬尾對峙期間設施也已幾無保存。加上馬祖閩東文化之搭配,更是獨步全球的優勢。

另外,原被生態界以為已經絕種的「黑嘴端鳳頭燕鷗」,2000年再度在馬祖被發現,迄今統計全世界僅存50多隻黑嘴端鳳頭燕鷗,其中有20多隻出現於馬祖,是目前全世界最多者。
馬祖 1949年,閩江、舟山群島相繼失守,美軍見留守大陳島後勤線將會過長不易長期防守,建議國民政府放棄大陳島等地,轉進金門、馬祖,對於大陸福建沿海任何軍事行動皆可提前掌控,扼守其要點,馬祖列島便成為國共抗戰的最北端防線,次年成立「馬祖行政公署」,實行軍事管制,但在這期間,行政組織相當不穩,軍事部隊事權也不統一,因此,為減少權力機關層級繁複,使權力集中,於1956年設立了「戰地政務委員會」,簡化行政層級,事權統一,軍方強勢的控管著一切事務,居民生活嚴重受到監控,管制其人口外流,並將居民納入軍事管理,建立民防組織,遂由原先安平樂業的漁村,一躍成為冷戰時期反共前哨堡壘,作為民主世界與共產政權的最前哨,馬祖實有其重要的歷史意義。 馬祖雖未經歷重大砲火摧殘,但歷史留下的軍事遺跡,卻成為我們最珍貴的文化資產。金馬戰地文化於2009年獲遴選為臺灣17處潛力點之一。 回溯馬祖列島開發歷史,遠至六千年前約當新石器時代,就有史前人類在島嶼上過著漁獵和採集的生活。從東莒島大坪隴考古遺址出土文物研究,證實與福州地區的曇石山遺址同屬一個文化層,跟後來的閩越文化圈,又有相當程度的關聯性。至今馬祖人仍舊保留著蛇和青蛙的圖騰信仰,濃濃的閩越文化遺風,已經沈潛於島民生活的底層,常顯現於祭典上,表露出馬祖人報本原始的情結和質樸的一面。 漢武帝剿滅閩越國後,一批不願歸降的閩越族遁走海上,成為最早的海洋民族,這樣偉業卻被歷代皇朝貶為「蜑民」階級。馬祖人稱呼蜑民為「曲蹄仔」,馬祖有許多曲蹄仔開發和出沒的澳口,因此有「曲蹄澳」的地名。史載馬祖曾有兩次海禁,進行封島焦土並將島民內徙:一次在1387年,因防制倭人為禍;另一次在1661年,為防止東南沿海居民接濟鄭成功軍隊。 海禁卻困不住馬祖人冒險犯難的海洋性格。清初,閩東沿海漁民和少數泉州人仍蜂湧移住澳口,汲汲營造家園。於是就地取花崗岩,打石砌牆、圍牆築屋,在各個澳口沿等高線形成依山的聚落。如今,「一村一澳口」的聚落型態構築了獨特的聚落景觀。而堅實的花崗岩牆體和滿佈壓瓦石的屋頂,造就馬祖鮮明的建築風格。方正的「一顆印」民居和醒目的廟宇封火山牆,相映成趣。 聚落內,村民習於操弄福州語腔調,世代傳頌澳口保護神:「白馬尊王」的守土聖跡;傳統生活仍如以往,村民依歲時節氣敬神祭祖,日復一日形塑著閩東人文的風采。而原是村民自家釀製的老酒,今日成為公營酒廠的招牌,名聲遠播。 1947年,國共內戰情勢慘烈,國民政府節節敗退,中共揮軍南下,國民政府將軍隊部署於東部沿海一帶的島嶼,企圖封鎖華中地區與福建廣東沿海一帶對外聯絡,建立防禦陣線,以嵊泗列島鎖住長江與上海,以舟山群島鎖住淮河與東海漁場,以馬祖列島控制閩江口流域,以金門封鎖廈門。
1968年起,馬祖地區國軍基於攻防一體之戰略指導與作戰任務需要,在南竿、北竿、西莒及東引,以人工一刀一斧、日夜不停趕工方式,在堅硬的花崗岩中開鑿出「北海坑道」、「安東坑道」、「午沙坑道」這些供登陸小艇使用之坑道碼頭,藉以保持戰力於九天之下,坑道密度為世界之冠,形成特殊的戰地景觀。馬祖島上充滿「反攻大陸」、「蔣總統萬歲」、「爭取最後勝利」、「軍民合作」、「枕戈待旦」等標語,以及馬祖各式各樣地下石室、坑道、射口、砲臺、廚房、廁所等防禦工事軍事據點。這些冷戰時期戰地文化景觀,反映了當時特殊的時空情境,加上燈塔、民間信仰廟宇及碑碣,符合世界遺產登錄標準第二及第四項。 馬祖獨特的戰地文化,兼具從「負面世界遺產」(對抗、戰爭、悲劇)走向「正面世界遺產」普世價值(和解、和平、喜劇)的教育示範與啟示作用,代表人類追求和平共存的普世價值,符合世界遺產登錄標準第三項。
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